The bus, codified as the IEEE 488 standard, continues to find use in legacy test-system upgrades and in calibration labs. The General-Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB) began life as the Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus (HP-IB). Hewlett-Packard, whose electronic test-and-measurement business has evolved into today’s Keysight Technologies, created the interface in the 1960s to connect multiple instruments in […]
Co-packaged optics: promises and complexities
Integrating optics into the same package as switching ASICs improves signal integrity and increases data rates, but challenges remain. Near-packaged optics could emerge as an interim solution to the problem. The constant need for more throughput in data centers pushes engineers to develop ever-faster optical and electrical links. In addition to designing for more speed, […]
How to make fast and accurate power-integrity measurements
Today’s electronic devices with fast FPGAs, ASICs, and other ICs rely on ever-smaller power rail voltages with tight tolerances. Engineers who incorporate these ICs into their systems need to use oscilloscopes, probes, and measurement techniques that align with today’s tight voltage rail tolerances. Making an accurate ripple measurement with an oscilloscope on a 1 V […]
Measurements verify power integrity
Engineers should measure and analyze power integrity on the power and ground planes of a board’s power distribution network. Understanding power integrity is crucial when evaluating circuit power quality because it has a direct influence on performance. Power integrity is a subset of signal integrity, whose assessment ensures that signals have suitable amplitude, rise time, […]
5G mmWave test builds on RF best practices
The high level of integration in today’s mmWave phone means traditional test methods no longer apply.
What are the critical measurements in satellite uplinks and downlinks?
Noise measurement, LO substitution, receiver stress testing, power measurement, CCDF and PAPR characterization, and antenna-pattern measurement play critical roles in link budget, bit-error rate, and SNR requirements.
How modularity benefits test systems
By understanding the key issues at every phase of the product lifecycle, engineers can make decisions that result in flexible, reliable, and scalable test systems. Taking a modular approach to test system development can accelerate development and mitigate risk throughout the entire product lifecycle. When it comes to designing and building automated test systems, today’s […]
What is de-embedding and how do I perform it (part 2)?
When testing a device in a fixture, you can use transfer scattering parameters (T-parameters) to help remove the fixture’s contribution from your measurement result.
How test executives automate equipment and processes
Working through test-program sets and drivers, test executives let engineers organize tests into logical sequences. They provide user interfaces for test technicians and store test results for analysis. Manufacturers of electronic and electromechanical devices rely on test instruments to generate stimuli and measure responses. While manually performing tests on the engineering bench might work for […]
Test methods for mmWave AiP designs bring tradeoffs
Engineers have several mmWave over-the-air test methods available for evaluating phased-array antennas used in antenna-in-package designs. Each has pros and cons.